THE BORDER LIFE

रिवेर्देव-संस्कृत-शब्दकोशः

RIVERDAVE’S SANSKRIT GLOSSARY 

OF AYURVEDA, YOGA  AND HIMALAYAN NATURAL HISTORY

Opened as a new student of Sanskrit in Kathmandu, Nepal in Summer 2017 and last updated November 2018

(a)

अम्लिका (amlikA) tamarind tree - tamarindus indica; تمر هندي ; महाम्ल (mahAmla) tamarind fruit

अस्मिता (asmitA) egoism

अभिरत (abhirata) contented; आभीर (abhIra) cowherd

अनादि (anAdi) without beginning, eternal

अक्षय (akSaya) infinite, eternal, imperishable

अक्षरन्यास (akSaranyAsa) alphabet

अश्वत्थ (azvattha) sacred fig - Ficus religiosa

आचार्य (AcArya) spiritual guide or teacher

अधिभूत (adhibhUta) the spiritual or subtle substratum of material or gross objects

अजमोदा (ajamodA) celery seed - Apium graveolens

औदुम्बर (Audumbara) audumbara tree or cluster fig tree - Ficus racemosa

अशोका (aZokA) ashoka tree - Saraca indica

अवधूत (avadhUta) charismatic or inspired saint; a free spirit 

अणिमन् (aNiman) superhuman power to become small, fine, atomic

अवलोकितेश्वर - (avalokitezvara) the Buddha of compassion

अरिष्ट (ariSTa) soapberry tree or nut - Sapindus laurifolia

अङ्गुलि (aGgulI) finger

अन्तःकरण (antaHkaraNa) thinking faculty

अगुरु (aguru) agarwood tree - Aquilaria malaccensis

अस्थि (asthi) bone, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) seven body tissues

अन्न (anna) food

असुर (asura) demon

अर्ह (arha) worthy

अहिंसा (ahiMsA) non-violence

अक्षोट (akSoTa) walnut tree - Juglans regia

अग्नि (agni) fire; अग्निबल (agnibala) digestive strength; जठराग्नि (jaTharAgni) digestive fire; अग्निहोत्र (agnihotra) sacred fire ceremony

अभ्यास (abhyAsa) discipline, practice

अनघ (anagha) blameless, innocent, sinless, handsome

अघोर (aghora) worshipper of Shiva and Durga

असन टोल (asan tol) Nepali - the Kathmandu medicinal herb market

अश्वगंधा (azwagandha) ashwagandha herb - Withania somnifera

अमृत (amRta) necter of immortality

अनुपान (anupAna) herbal liquid carrier

अमिताभ (amitAbha) a celestial Buddha; from अमित (amita) infinite and आभा (AbhA) light

(A)

आप्त (Apta) friend, trusted person

आयुर्वेद (Ayurveda) knowledge of life, medicine; आयु (Ayu) life

आश्चर्य (Azcarya) wonder, miracle

आदि (Adi) source, origin

आज्य (Ajya) melted or clarified butter 

अनल (anala) fire

आप (Apa) water

आराम (ArAma) delight, pleasure, garden, grove

आदान (AdAna) summer - receiving

आहार (AhAra) diet

आमलकी (AmalakI) Indian gooseberry tree - Phyllanthus emblica 

आर्द्रक (Ardraka) fresh ginger root - Zingiber officinale, also as शृङ्गवेर (zRGavera) - शृङ्ग (zRGga) horn + वेर (vera) body;  शुण्ठी (zuNTI) dried ginger

आयुर्वेद (Ayurveda) life science

आम (Ama) metabolic toxin, uncooked

आम्र (Amra) mango tree - Mangifera indica

आकाश (AkAza) space

आत्रेय (Atreya) Punarvasu, 6th BCE rishi and Ayurvedic scholar

आत्मन् (Atman) essential self; सूत्रात्मन् (sUtrAtman) the self consisting of channels; अध्यात्म (adhyAtma) supreme self; महात्मन् (mahAtman) great soul     

आत्मविद्या (AtmavidyA) self knowledge

आत्मगुप्ता (AtmaguptA) Atmagupta bean or secret self - Mucuna pruriens 

आत्म अनुभूति (Atma anubhUti) - experience of infinity

आश्रम (Azrama) one of four life stages: रह्मचर्य (brahmacarya) student; गृहस्थ (gRhastha) householder; वनप्रस्थ (vanaprastha) forest dweller; सन्यास(sanyAsa) renunciate

आनन्द (Ananda) bliss

(i)

इष्ट (iSTa) loved, desired 

इडा (iDA) lunar nadi

इन्द्र (indra) Lord of the sky and atmosphere

इन्द्रिय (indriya) sense organ

(I)

ईश्वर (Izvara) God; ईश्वरी (IzvarI) Goddess; योगेश्वर (yogezvara) Lord of Yoga, Krishna

(u)

उद्धूलन (uddhUlana) Ayurvedic treatment of sprinkling with powder

उपगुरु (upaguru) teacher, as distinct from the सद्गुरु (sadguru) true guru

उलूक (ulUka) owl

उच्चार (uccAra) utterance of mantra

उपनिषद् (upaniSad) Upanishad: canon of 108 scriptures in the मुक्तिका (muktikA) canon; etymology: उप (upa) above, निषद् (niSad) sit down

उपासना (upAsanA) sitting near, intent or engaged in, concentration

उपवेद (upaveda) the four supplemental Vedas: आयुर्वेद (Ayurveda) healing arts; धनुर्वेद (dhanurveda) martial arts; स्थापत्यवेद (sthApatyaveda) geomancy; गान्धर्ववेद (gAndharvaveda) fine arts

(U)

ऊर्वङ्ग (UrvaGga) fungus

(e)

एला (elA) cardamon herb, seed - Elettaria cardamomum

एकः (ekaH) one; एकाग्रता (ekAgratA) one-pointed meditation

ओ (o)

ओजस् (ojas) vitality

औ (au)

औषध (auSadha) medicine, herb, mineral; औषधालय (auSadhAlaya) dispensary, apothecary

(R)

ऋतु (Rtu) season; ऋतुचर्या (Rtucarya) seasonal dietary regime

ऋषि (RSi) seer, sage; ऋषिकुल्या (RSikulyA) river of the seers

(RRii)

ॠ (RR) mother of the gods, breast

(IRi)

ऌ (IR) earth, mother of the gods, the female nature

(IRRii)

ॡ (IRR) mother, divine female

(ka)

कैवल्य (kaivalya) isolation, detachment form karmic influences, ultimate goal of yoga

कृषि (kRSi) agriculture, plowing

क्षेत्र (KSetra) field, arena, body

कमलासन (kamalAsana) having a lotus as a seat

कथयति (kathayati) to speak, inform, announce, declare

किल्बिष (kilbiSa) fault, sin

कौसल (kauzala) skill, well being, health, prosperity ease

क्रिया योग (kriyA yoga) kriya yoga 

कृमि (kRmi) worm, parasite

कुल (kula) lineage, community

काशि (kAzI) city of Benares or Varanasi, light

कायाकल्प (kAyakalpa) a rejuvenation practice; काय (kAya) body + कल्(kalpa) practice, ritual; day of Brahman (i.e. 4,320, 000,000 years)

कमण्डलु (kamanDalu) gourd, water pot, canteen

कौपीन (kaupIna) loincloth

केन्द्र (kendra) center

कृति (kRti) creation

काल (kAla) era, time; काले (kAle) timely - indeclinable

कुटी (kuTI) hut, cabin

कस्तूरी (kastUrI) musk

कुट्टिमदारु (kuTTimadAru) maple tree - Acer species

कर्पूर (karpUra) camphor tree - Cinnamomum camphora

कीर्तिन (kIrtina) chanting

काक (kAka) crow

कुष्माण्ड (kuSmANDa) wintermelon

क्षय (kSaya) energy depletion; loss of शुक्र (zukra) sexual fluids 

कामचारिन् (kAmacArin) indulging in sensual pleasure

काय (KAya) body

कायचिकित्सा (KAyacikitsA) internal medicine

कवल (kavala) gargle, oil pulling

कर्म (karma) action

कोष (koSa) sheath of body and mind realm of experience 

क्लेश (kleza) pain, affliction, grief

कम्पवात (kampavAta) tremor wind, Parkinson’s Disease

कुम्भक (kumbhaka) breath retention

कवि (kavi) poet, काव्य (kavya) poetry

कुण्डलिनी (kuNDalinI) coiled one

क्षत्रिय (kSatriya) member of the warrior or ruling class 

काहू (kAhU) lettuce plant - Lactuca sativa or virosa in western Himalayas

काष्ठमन्डप (kAStha-mandap) = wood-shelter - pagoda that was namesake of Modern Kathmandu

क्षीर (kSIra) tree latex or sap

(kha)

 खेचरी मुद्रा (khecharI mudrA) flying through the air - or tip of tongue on roof of mouth

खण्ड (khaNDa) volume, section

ख (kha) cave, cavity, space, ether

वैगुण्य (khavaiguNya) space or place of weakness in the body, from: ख (kha) space + वैगुण्य (vaiguNya) fault or weakness

वैगुण्य (fault, weakness)

खग (khaga) moving in the air, sun name, bird, wind

(ga)

गान्धर्व (gAndharva) music

गर्भ (garbha) foetus, egg, womb

गृह (gRha) home, house

गिर (gira) speech, utterance

गति (gati) movement or spike of the pulse; goal, path

गुड (guDa) jaggery, sugar

गुग्गुलु - (guggulu) guggulu tree & resin - Commiphora mukul or wrightii 

गरिमन् (gariman) super human power to become heavy or stable

गुलिका (gulikA) medicine ball, pill

गीत (gIta) song

गृहस्थ (gRhastha) householder, the second stage or आश्रम (Azrama) of life 

गङ्गा (gaGgA) Ganges River; गङ्गाजल (gaGgAjala) holy water

गुण (guNa) quality

गुरु (guru) teacher

गौरी (gauri) white, Shiva’s wife Parvati

गरम मसाला (garam masAlA - Hindi) hot mixture seasoning

गन्ध (gandha) scent, smell

गजः (gaja) elephant

(gha)

गन्ध (gandha) perfume, scent

घट्ट (ghatta) steps to a river, landing-place, quay

घृत (ghRta) ghee

घ्राण (ghrANa) nose, smelling

(Ga)

(Ga) and object of sense desire

(ca)

चरित्र (caritra) character, conduct, behavior, exploits

चक्षु (cakSu) eye

चिन्ता (cintA) thought, concern, consideration, meditation

चेल (cela) servant, slave

चेतना (cetanA) consciousness, soul, mind

चित्त (citta) thought, memory, immagination

चिकित्सा (cikitsa) therapy or treatment

चैत्य (chaitya) temple, hall, tree or place of worship

चन्दन (candana) Indian sandalwood tree - Santalum album

चर (cara) animated, अचर (acara) inanimated; चरक (caraka) wanderer, and physican compiler of charaka samhita

चक्र (cakra) body’s energy center, wheel, riverbend

चन्द्र (candra) moon

चिदानन्द (cidAnanda) thoughtful joy

चूर्ण (cUrNa) medicinal herbal powder

च्यवनप्राश (cyavanprAz) chyawanprash - herbal restorative formula

(cha)

छिन्मुद्र (chinamudra) chin mudra

छन्दस् (chandas)  sacred hymn, collection of Vedic hymns or Vedic meter in general

छाया (chAyA) shadow; chayopasana - shadow gazing practice

(ja)

ज्ञान (jJAna) knowledge; अज्ञान (ajJAna) ignorance; ज्ञानमुद्रा (JjAnamudrA) gyan mudra

जरा (jarA) old age, decrepitude, wasting

जय (jaya) victory

जगत् (jagat) world, cosmos, universe; 

जठर (jathara) abdomen 

जाति (jAti) caste, class, genus

जगती (jagatI) Vedic meter of four verses with twelve syllables each

जीवनीय (jIvanIya) vitalizer, as an herbal action

ज्योति (jyoti) light

जन्म (janma) birth; पुनर्जन्म (punarjanma) rebirth, reincarnation; अज (aja) unborn

जल (jala) water

जाग्रत् - (jAgrat) waking, awakened 

जिह्व (jiva) tongue, taste

(jha)

झलि (jhali) betel nut tree - Areca catechu; often used by wrapping in पर्ण (parNa) betel leaf - Piper betle

झिल्ली (jhillI) cricket

(Ja)

ञ (Ja) heretic

(Ta)

टु (Tu) one who can change his shape at will

(Tha)

(Tha) disc of the sun or moon

(Da)

डाकिनी (DAkinI) female imp attending Kali

(Dha)

ढक्का (DhakkA) drum

(Na)

ण (Na) Knowledge, Shiva, negation sound, water-summer house

(ta)

त्याग (tyAga) abandonment, resignation, renunciation, sage

तोय (toya) water; तोयफला (toyaphalA) watermellon; तोयगर्भ (toyagarbha) coconut 

तुरीय (turIya) the fourth state of pure conscious in the Advaita Vedanta tradition

तिलक (tilaka) mark on forehead

तगर (tagara) the herb Valerian root - Valeriana wallichii

तन्त्र (tantra) esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism; text, theory, system, method, instrument, technique or practice

तिल (tila) the plant sesame - Sesamum indicum;  तैल (taila) oil

तपस् (tapas) discipline, asceticism

तुलसी (tulasI) the herb holy basil - Ocimum sanctum

तेजस् (tejas) fire

तत्त्व (tattva) essence, element, true nature

तत्त्वविद् (tattvavid) - philosopher, one who studies the elements

तथागत (tathAgata) the Buddha

तीर्थ (tIrtha) sacred place, ford, bank next to sacred stream, vulva

तमस् (tamas) darkness

त्रिफला (triphalA) herbal digestive formula of three tree fruits आमलकी (AmalakI) Phyllanthus emblica; विभितक (bibhitaki) Terminalia belerica; हरीतकी (harItakI) Terminalia chebula

त्राटक (trATaka) concentration on one object

तीक्ष्ण (tIkSNa) a guna or quality that is sharp, penetrating, pungent, acrid, aromatic

(tha)

थ (tha) mountain

थान्का (thanka) thanka - in Neplali, Tibetan painting of deity or mandala

(da)

दृष्टि (dRSTi) seeing, gazing; समदृष्टि (samadRSTi) looking on all with impartiality

देहभृत् (dehabhRt) embodied

दार (dAra) wife

दोष (doSa) fault, deficiency, weak point, blemish, humoral imbalance

दमनक (damanaka) the herb mugwort - Artemisia indica?

दानव (dAnava) demons

दम (dama) self restraint

दान (dAna) charity

दत्तात्रेय (dattatreya) Dattatreya - the adi-guru of the Nath yoga tradition, and considered an avatar 

द्विजा (dvIjA) twice born

दिगम्बर (digambara) sky-clothed, naked mendicant

द्वार (dvAra) door, opening; नवद्वार (navadvAra) nine gated, nine apertures of the body

दुःख (duHkha) suffering, sorrow, distress; opposite of सुख (sukha) happiness; दुः means clogged & सु means open or clear

द्राव्य (dravya) substance, cognate of english drug;  द्रव्यगुण (dravyaguNa) pharmacology

दारुसिता (dArusitA) cinnamon tree - Cinnamomum verum, or cassia, or tamale

दण्ड (danDa) stick, cane

देवदारु (devadAru) Himalayan Cedar tree - Cedrus deodara

दिनचर्या (dinacarya) daily routine

देव (deva) god; देवता (devatA) and (देवी) goddess; अधिदैव (adhidhaiva) supreme god

देवनागरी (devanAgarI) divine city script

दीपक - (dIpaka) lamp

दीपन (dIpan) digestive stimulant

दीक्षा (dIkSA) initiation

दही (dahI) yogurt, curds - Hindi

देह (deha) body, mass, form;  देह-मानस (deha-mAnasa) body-mind or psychosomatic

(dha)

धनुर्धर (dhanurdhara) archer; धनु (dhanu) bow

धाम (dhama) abode

धौति (dhauti) loin cloth worn by men 

धातु (dhAtu) constituent, element, tissue

ध्रुव (dhruva) polar star

धर्म (dharma) duty, law, custom, practice, nature; धर्मता (dharmata) essence; 

धन्वन्तरि (dhanvantari) the one who received Ayurveda from Indra

ध्यान (dhyAna) meditation

(na)

निर्मम (nirmama) unselfish

नामन् (nAman) name

नर (nara) man

नस्या (nasyA) nose; नसिकाग्र मुद्रा (nasikAgra mudrA) focusing on the tip of the nose; नासाग्र दृष्टि ( nAsAgra dRSTi) gazing at tip of nose                                                                                                                    

निर्विकल्प (nirvikalpa) without distinction, nondual 

निराकार (nIrAkAra) formless

निवृत्ति (nivRtti) cessation, as opposed to प्रवृत्ति (pravRtti) action, as a मार्ग (marga) path; अप्रवृत्ति (apravRitti) inertia, inaction, constipation

नायिका (nAyikA) female tantrik partner; नायक (nAyaka) male tantrik partner

निर्गुण्डी (nirguNDI) herb Vitex negundo

नेत्र (netra) eye

नाथ (nAtha) lord, master, a tradition, the natha sector sampradaAya

निद्रा (nidrA) sleep

निर्वाण (nirvANa) final liberation, cessation; ब्रह्मनिर्वाण (brahmanirvANa) absorption into Brahma

नेती (netI) drawing string or water through nostril

नाग (nAga) cobra, snake

नाद (nAda) sound

नाभि (nAbhi) navel

नायिका (nAyikA) tantrik consort

नरक (naraka) hell

नारायण (nArAyaNa) Name of Krishna; Vishnu; a medicinal churna

नम्र (namra) willow tree - Salix species; bowed, humble, inclined - Hindi

नद (nada) river 

नदी (nadI) creek, pulse

नाडी (nADI) subtle energy channel

नान्द (nAnda) joy

नियम (niyama) precept, rule

निरोध (nirodha) restraint of वृत्ति (vRtti) fluctuations

नटराजासन (naTarAjAsana) Lord of the Dance pose

नेवार (newAr) - historic residents of Kathmandu Valley

(pa)

प्रणाम (praNAma) prostration

परिव्राजक (parivrAjaka) wandering spiritual person

प्रलय (pralaya) dissolution, cessation, armageddon

प्रवृद्धि (pravRddhi) growth, increase, rise, dominance; विवृद्धि (vivRddhi) growth, increase, rise, dominance

प्रमाद (pramAda) negligence

प्रकाश (prakAza) open, shining, manifest; अप्रकाश (aprakAza) hidden, unenlightening, dark

प्रिय (priya) beloved, dear

प्रसाद (prasAda) mercy, grace, free gift

प्रभा (prabhA) splendor, radiance, light variously personified 

प्रावृष् (prAvRS) rains, monsoon

पत्त्र (patra) leaf of tree, wing of bird, paper; गुह्यपत्त्र (guhyapattra) having hidden leaves or blossoms - Bodhi tree - Ficus religiosa 

परीक्षा (parIkSa) physical examination 

प्रसाद (prasAda) food ritually offered to a deity that is usually then eaten 

पूर्ण (pUrna) state of completeness, whole

परिक्रम (parikrama) circumambulation

पञ्चवटी (paJcavaTi) Rama’s grove of five sacred trees - banyan, bael, amalaki, ashoka and peepal

पण्ठन् (paNThan) path

प्रयाग (prayAga) place of sacrifice

पादुक (Paduka) sandal; पादुकाहीनम् (pAdukAhInam) barefoot

पनस (panasa) jackfruit tree - Artocarpus heterophyllus

प्रसन्न (prasanna) happy, clear

पतञ्जलि (pataJjali) Patanjali - author of the Yoga Sutras

पीलु (pIlu) atom

पायु (pAyu) anus 

उपस्थ (upastha) penis, पायूपस्थ (PAyupastha) anus and organs of generation

पाणि (pAni) hand

पुदीना (pudInA) peppermint or mint plant - Mentha balsamea

परम (parama) highest, absolute; परमात्मन् (paramAtman) the Great Spirit

रार्थना (prArthanA) prayer, petition

प्रार्थनाचक्रम् (prArthanAcakram) prayer wheel

प्रणव (praNava) sacred Om sound or symbol

पूष (pUS) to nourish

प्राकृत (prAkRita) vulgar, vernacular, common

पुरुष (puruSa) transcendental self, a person - English cognate

पूजा (pUjA) veneration; from combining first two letters of पूर्ण (pUrNa) जाग्रत् (jAgrat) - complete awakening 

पद्म (padma) sacred lotus plant - Nelumbo nucifera

पशुपति (pazupati) lord of the animals, पशु (paZu) Lord Shiva, पति (pati) animals

पर्ण (parNa) leaf

पुष्प (puSpa) flower

प्रकृति (prakRti) nature, constitution, equilibrium

पद्मक (padmaka) Himalayan wild cherry tree - Prunus cerasoides

पारम्पर (pArampara) tradition, lineage

पाप (pApa) evil deed, as opposed to punya - merit

पुण्य (punya) meritorious act, merit, virtue

प्राञ्जलि (prAJjali) outstretched hollowed open hands

पिङ्गल (piGgala) solar nadi

पाद (pAda) chapter, one line of a four lined verse; foot

प्रातिभ (praAtibha) divination siddhi, intuition

पदाधीरासन (padAdhIrAsana) swara balancing pose

पूरक (pUraka) inhalation

प्रयाग (prayAga) place of sacrifice, river confluence

पक्ष (pakSa) fortnight

पूर्णिमा (pUrnima) day or night of full moon

प्राज्ञा - (prAja) intelligence

प्रेमन् (preman) affection, love

पृथिवी - (pRthivI) earth 

पूर्ण - (pUrNa) full, पूर्णकाम (pUrNakAma) - desire filled, satisfied

पितृ (pitR) father

पिङ्गल (piGgala) solar nadi

प्रत्याहार (pratyAhAra) withdrawal, sense deprivation

प्राण (prANa) energy, breath, life force; प्राणायाम (prANAyAma) breath expansion; आयाम (AyAma) expansion; प्राणाचार्य (prANAcArya) physician to the king

प्राणापान (prANApAna) inhalation and exhalation, inspiration and expiration

प्रभाव - (prabhAva) the peculiar affinity of a medicinal herb

(pha)

फल (phala) fruit

फाणित (phANita) syrup

(ba)

बज्रकीट् (bajrakIT) Indian pangolin - Manis crassicaudata

बन्धु (bandhu) relative, kin

ब्रह्मपुत्र (brahmaputra) - Brahmaputra River

बद्री (badri) badri, jujube or Indian date tree - Ziziphus jujuba

बृंहण (brimhana) tonifying, building

बुद्ध (buddha) the Buddha; awakened, enlightened

बुद्धियोग - buddhiyoga - yoga of intuition or higher intellect

बोधि (bodhi) sacred fig tree - Ficus religiosa; wise; अश्वत्थ (aSvattha) “horse stays” tree”; पिप्पल (pippala) sacred fig tree

बल - (bala) strength; herb - Sida cordifolia

ब्रह्म (brahma) supreme Spirit

ब्राह्मण (brAhmana) top class in Hindu society

ब्रह्मचर्य (brahmacarya) student, the second stage or आश्रम (Azrama) of life 

बृहदम्ल (BRihadamla) starfruit tree - Averrhoa carambola

(bha)

भजन (bhajana) worship, sharing

भ्रू (bhrU) brow, eyebrow

भेद (bheda) rift, split, distinction, dualism

भिक्षा (bhikSA) alms; भिक्षुक (bhikSuka) begger; Persian بخشش 

भृङ्गराज (bhRGgarAja) bhringaraj herb - Eclipta alba 

भस्मन् (bhasman) ashes

भैषज्यगुरु (bhaiSajyaguru) medicine guru/Buddha

भक्ति (bhakti) devotion, भक्त (bhakta) devotee

भङ्गा (bhaGgA) herb - Cannabis sativa

भूम्यामलकी (bhUmyAmalakI) herb stonebreaker - Phyllanthus amarus, 

भूर्ज (bhUrja) birch tree - Betula species

भगवद् (bhagavad) divine, holy, blessed

भगवद्गीता (bhagavadgItA) kRSHa’s song, Bhagavad-gita

भाषा (bhASA) language

भूमि (bhUmi) earth

भाव (bhAva) state, condition, being, rank; अन्तर्भाव (antarbhAva) inner state, stage; Tibetan bardo; भावान्तराभाव (bhAvAntarAbhAva) the Tibetanbecoming bardo

(ma)

मुहूर्त - (muhUrta) period of time lasting 48 minutes

मति (mati) thought, intuition

माया (mAyA) illusion

मूढ (mUDha) foolish, deluded 

मोह (moha) delusion, loss of consciousness, confusion

मकर (makara) crocodile

महाराज (mahArAja) emperor

मेयः (meyaH) measure

मुक्ति (mukti) freedom, liberation

मल (mala) bodily waste;  tri-malas: पुरीष (purISa) feces;  मूत्र (mUtra) urine;  स्वेद (sveda) sweat

मुनि (muni) sage; मौन (mauna) silence

मूर्ति (mUrti) a solid form or representation of a deity or its energy as statue or painting

महिमन् (mahiman) super human power to become large, great

माञ्जिष्ठ (mAJjiSTha) herb Indian madder - Rubia cordifolia 

मण्डल (maNDala) cosmic or energetic map of the universe

मार्ग (marga) path of any kind; the two marga or paths of: प्रवृत्ति (pravRtti) outer action & निवृत्ति (nivRtti) inner contemplation 

मेथिका (methikA) herb fenugreek - Trigonella foenum

मयूर (mayUra) peacock

मृग (mRga) deer;  मार्ग (mArga) adj. - coming from a deer; a path; मार्गिन् mArgin) guide

मण्डूकपर्णी (maNDUkaparni) herb Gotu kola - Centella asiatica; frog-leafed

मेघ (megha) cloud; मेघालय (meghalya) abode of the clouds - forested state in N.E. India

मीर (mIra) ocean

महामेरु (mahAmeru) great Mt. Meru, 350,000 miles high

मेरुदण्ड (merudaNDa) spinal column, axis mundi

महेश्वर (mahezvara) Shiva

मुद्रा (mudrA) sign

मन्त्र (mantra) incantation

माला (mAlA) rosary, garland

मनस् (manas) mind

मनोरथ (manoratha) wish, desire; chariot of the mind - रथ (ratha) chariot

मङ्गल (maGgala) auspicious, bliss, luck, prosperity, amulet

मञ्जुश्री (maJjuzrI) one of four main Mahayana Bodhisattvas

मानव (mAnava) human being

मानुष्य (mAnuSya) human being, man

मैथुन (maithuna) sexual intercourse, coupling, mating

मुद्ग (mudga) mung dal lentil - Vigna radiata

महाभारतश्रृंखला (mahAbhAratazRGkhalA) Mahabharat or Lesser Himalaya Mountains

मरिच (marica) black pepper herb - Piper nigram

मांस (mamsa) muscle, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) seven body tissues

मेदस् (medas) fat, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) seven body tissues

मज्जा (majja) marrow, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) seven body tissues

मर्मन् (marman) vulnerable energetic point on the body

मातृ (mAtR) mother

(ya)

यन्त्र (yantra) machine, support, amulet, mystical diagram

योनि (yoni) vagina, womb

यज्ञ (yajJa) sacrifice; अधियज्ञ (adhiyajJa) chief or basis of sacrifice

यतिन् (yatin) ascetic, devotee

योग (yoga) yoga; योगवाही (yogavAhi) herbal carrier or menstruum

यवागू (yavAgU) gruel of rice or other grains

यात्रा (yAtrA) journey, pilgrimage, महायात्रा (mahayAtrA) great pilgrimage, यात्रिक (yAtrika) pilgrim, सिद्धियात्रिक (siddhiyAtrika) pilgrim seeking special beatitude

(ra)

राज (rAja) king

रूक्ष (rUkSa) astringent

रोग (roga) sickness; आरोग्य (Arogya) freedom from disease; health

राग (rAga) passion, longing, love, affection, condiment, inflamation, musical note, moon; melodic formula of classical Indian music: वैराग्य (vairAgya) dispassion

रजस् (rajas) passion, the active guna; pollen, sperm

रहस्य (rahasya) secret; hidden mystical doctrine or practice

रेचक (recka) purgation, treatment for excess pitta in intesti

रूप (rUpa) shape, form, likeness

रवि (ravi) sun, mountain

रति (rati) love 

रेचक (recaka) exhalation

रस (rasa) plasma, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) body tissues; रसायन (rasAyana) restorative herb or action; रसात्मक (rasAtmaka) one whose essence is juice

रक्त (rakta) blood, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) body tissues

(la)

लिङ्ग (liGga) representation of Shiva; phallus 

लङ्गन (laGghana) reducing or detoxifying

लोक (loka) place, world, realm, community, space, region; लोकसङ्ग्रह (lokasaGraha) maintaining the welfare of place 

लघिमन् (laghiman) superhuman power to become light and levitate

लवण (lavaNa) salt

लोभ (lobha) greed, desire, love

लवङ्ग (lavaGga) clove tree and fruit

लक्ष्मी (lakSmI) goddess of wealth

(va)

वात (vAta) wind; वातघ्न (vAtaghna) that which removes disorders due to excess vata or wind

वसुदेव (vasudeva) Krishna’s father; Krisha; वसु (vasu) wealth

वीर (vIra) hero, strong, man, husband, ginger root

व्यास (vyAsa) legendary sage, father of PAnDu, grandfather of Arjuna and compiler of the Vedas, Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita

वाणिज्या (vANijyA) commerce, trade; वणिज (vaNija) trader, merchant, evolved into Portuguese “banyan”

व्याघ्र (vyAghra) tiger

वृत्ति (vRtti) activity, fluctuations

व्याधि (vyAdhi) disease, illness, disorder

वक्त्र (vaktra) face, mouth

वर्ण (varNa) color, caste, class, species

व्यय (vyaya) dissolution, passing away, decay; अव्यय (avyaya) eternal, imperishable 

वज्र (vajra) thunderbolt, diamond;  वज्रासन (vajrAsana) the diamond seated meditation pose

वर्ष (varSa) rain

वैराग्य (vairagya) aversion to worldly matters and affairs

वस्ति (vasti) pronounced “basti”; enema, treatment for excess vata in the colon

वामिन् (vAmin) vomiting, treatment for excess kapha 

वीणा (vINA) lute

वेदाङ्ग (vedAGga) one of the six auxilliary Vedic sciences - phonetics, meter, grammar, etymology, ritual, astrology

विमान (vimAna) sky chariot

विश्वनाथ (vizvanAth) Lord of the universe

वासक (vAsaka) Malabar Nut herb - Justicia adhatoda

विद्यार्थि (vidyArthi) student, seeker of knowledge

विकृति (vikRti) imbalance, deficiency or excess, which moves towards प्रकृति (prakRti) equilibrium, balance, constitution

विकार (vikAra) disorder, illness, disease, disequilibrium

विपश्यन (vipashyana) clear seeing, as in second stage of meditation after शमथ (zamatha)

वट (vaTa) Banyan tree - Ficus benghalensis 

विरेचन (virecana) laxative

विहार (vihAr) recreation, diversion, pastime

वाच् (vAc) voice, speech

विभीदक (vibhIdaka) also विभितक, विभीतक beleric, Terminalia bellirica

वेद (veda) knowledge; वेदान्त (vedanta) complete knowledge or the end of the Vedas and one of six orthodox schools of Hinduism

वेदाङ्ग (vedaGga) limb of Vedas: ज्योतिष (jyotiS) astrology; कल्प (kalpa) ritual; शिक्षा (zikSa) pronunciation; व्याकरण (vyAkaraNa) grammer; निरुक्त (nirukta) etymology; छन्दस् (chandas) meter

वाजीकरण (vAjIkaraNa) aphrodisiac

व्यवाय (vayavAya) sexual intercourse

व्यवायवायिन् (vyavAyavAyin) aphrodisiac, lascivious

वनफल (vanaphala) wild fruit, fruit of the forest

विकृति (vikRti) changed condition, vitiated nature

वनप्रस्थ (vanaprastha) forest dweller, third stage or आश्रम (Azrama) of life  

वासना (vAsanA) impression remaining unconsciously in the mind 

वायु (vAyu) wind, पवन (pawana) wind

व्योमन् (vyoman) heaven, sky, air, ether

विचार (vicAra) analysis, examination

विषुवत् (viSuvat) equinox (middle)

वाजीकरण (vAjIkarana) potency causing, aphrodisiac

वैश्य (vaizya) person of second or working class

वैराग्य (vairAgya) unattachment

वर्णमाला (varNamAla) alphabet

विभू (vibhU) universal mind, omniscient; विभूति (vibhUti) - manifestations of might

विपाक (vipAka) post-digestive effect of a medicinal herb

(za)

शाम्भवी मुद्रा - (zambhavi mudrA) eyes focused between the eyebrows

शिलाजित् (zilAjit) Himalayan medicinal mineral bitumen

श्री (zri) title of respect; splendid, majesty, glory

शरण (zaraNa) refuge, protection

शात्रव (zatrava) enemy

शश (zaza) rabbit, moon 

शत (zata) one hundred

शल्लकी (zallakI) herbal frankincense resin - Boswellia serrata

शङ्का (zaGkA) fear, strife apprehension

शिष्य (ziSya) disciple

शिखा (zikhA) crest or lock of hair 

शुभं जन्मदिनम् (zubha janmadinam) happy birthday!

शतावरी (zatAvarI) plant: Shatavari - Asparagus racemosus; from शत (zata) one hundred + वर (vara) husband

शमथ (zamatha) tranquility, calm abiding as first stage of meditation

शालि (zAli) rice; रक्तशालि (raktazAli) red rice

श्रोत्र (zotra) ear, hearing

शुण्ठी  (zuNTI) dried ginger

श्येन (zyena) a hawk, falcon, eagle, any bird of prey, especially the eagle that brings soma to humans

शम्भलः (zambhalah) mythical kingdom in Tibetan Buddhist tradition

शिवालिक (zivAlik) tresses of Shiva - sub-Himalayan mountain range

शङ्ख (znGkha) conch

श्रमण (zramaNa) ascetic 

शब्द (zabda) sound, voice

श्रद्धा (zraddhA) faith, belief

शक्ति (zakti) energy

शण्ड (zaNDa) thick sour milk, curds

शम्भु (zambhu) beneficent ( another name for Shiva - शिव )

शान्ति (zAnti) peace

शप (zava) corpse

शास्त्र (zAstra) teaching, treatise, sacred book, scripture

शिवाविद्या (zivAvidha) divination by the cries of jackals

शुभ (zubha) auspicious अशुभ (azubha) inauspicious 

शून्य (zUnya) emptiness, zero 

शूद्र (zUdra) person of the lowest cast

शब्दकोश (zabdakoza) dictionary, from zabda koza, a word treasury

शब्दावलि (zabdAvali) glossary, from zabda avali, a word series

शिरोधरा (zirodharA) - Ayurvedic treatment of oil drip on forehead

शुक्र (zukra) sexual fluids, one of the सप्तधातु (saptadhAtu) body tissues

श्लोक (shloka) verse

 

षण्ड (SaNDa) wood, group of trees or plant 

षण्मुखी मुद्रा (SanmukhI mudrA) closing the seven gates of the head with the  fingers

(Sa)

समत्व (samatva) equanimity; सम (sama) equanimity

स्वर्ग (svarga) heaven

सती (satI) good and faithful wife - burning herself on husband’s funeral pyre

समस्त (samasta) total, all

साक्षिन् (sAkSin) witness

स्पृहा (spRha) desire, envy, coveting, aspiration

स्नान (snAna) ritual bathing, ablution; स्नानतीर्थ - (snAnatIrtha) sacred bathing place

साख्य (sAkhya) friendship

सहस्र (sahasra) one thousand

स्रोत्या (srotyA) river

सहज (sahaja) natural, inborn, congenital;  सहजज्ञान (sahajajJAna) instinct;  सहज-बुद्धि (sahaja-buddhi) instinct

सर्प (sarpa) serpent

साधु (sadhu) virtuous, righteous, holy person

स्नान (snAna) bathing, cleansing, ablution

सुहृद (suhRda) friend, companion

स्तोत्र (stotra) hymn of praise

सङ्ग (saGga) attachment, union, joining, group

संवाद (saMvAd) dialogue, as a way of teaching among the sages and between Arjuna and Krishna

स्वाहा (svAhA) wife of Agni or Shiva, said to her or other deities when making offerings; blessings,  so be it, Amen!

 सौन्दर्यलहरी (saundaryalaharI) The Beautiful Wave - Tantrik text by Adi Shankara and Pushpadanta

सिन्धुनद (sindhunada) Indus River

साक्षात्कार (sAkSAtkAra) self realization

स्वागतम् (svAgatam) welcome! 

सुभाष (subhAS) eloquent; सु (su) good + भाषा (bhASA) speech

स्पन्द (spanda) vibration

साङ्ख्य (saGkhiya) Sankya philosophical system that Yoga and Ayurveda are based on

स्थिर (sthira) steadiness

सम (sama) equal, balanced - sama dosha, sama dhatu, sama agni; अशम (asama) unequal, disquietude 

सनातन (sanAtana) eternal, primordial; सनातन धर्म (sanAtana dharma) Vedic religion

स्नेहन (snehana) unction

सर्षप (sarSapa) mustard plant & seed - Brassica species

सात्म्य (sAtmya) wholesomeness, agreeable to nature or constitution - from Carak

स्थलजा (sthalajA) licorice plant root - Glycyrrhiza glabra

सैन्धव (saindhava) rock salt; रक्त सैन्धव(rakta saindhava) - red rock salt

सूत्र (sutra) aphorism, verse, thread

सत्य (satya) truth, सत्यकाम (truth loving)

सम्प्रदाय (sampradaAya) lineage, tradition, sect

सूक्ष्म (sUkSma) subtle, सूक्ष्म शरीर (sUkSma zarIrA) subtle or energy body

सोहम (soham) that I am; the sound of breath inhalation and exhalation

सोम (soma) soma plant, nectar, moon, सोमरस (somarasa) juice of soma plant

सिंह - (siMha) lion

स्थितप्रज्ञ (sthitaprajJa) steadiness of mind; स्थित (sthita) being;  प्रज्ञ (prajJa) knowing

सागवान (sAgawAn) teak tree - Tectona grandis - Nepali 

सङ्क्रान्ति (saGkrAti) transference of consciousness at death; Tibetan phowa

स्पर्श (sparza) touch

स्तूप (stUpa) summit, crest, Buddhist monument

सुश्रुत (suzruta) Sushruta 6th century BC physician, compiler of the Sushruta Samhita with focus on surgery

सागर (sAgara) ocean; सागर-मथ्था (sAgar-matthA) ocean-mother, Mt. Everest in Nepali language; `मृत्युसंसारसागरात् (mRtyusaMsArasAgarAt) death ocean of transmigration

स्वस्थता (svasthatA) health

स्वस्थ (svastha) healthy, sound, well; स्व (sva) self + स्थ (stha) place

स्वस्तक (svastaka) having a good or healthy home

स्वस्थवृत्त (svasthAvRtta) medical treatment of a healthy person

सर्व (sarva) whole, universal, complete; सर्वभूत (sarvabhUta) all beings

सर्वे मड्गलं (sarva maGgala) may all be prosperous, well, auspicious 

सूत्रस्थान (sUtrasthAna) first general section 

सन्यास(sanyAsa) renunciate, the fourth stage or आश्रम (Azrama) of life 

सार (sAra) essence, extract, path, creek

सङ्कल्प (saGkalpa) intention

सत्त्व (sattva) goodness, harmonious guna; mind

सन्धि (sandhi) irregular pranas flow into sushumna, agreement

सद्गुरु (sadguru) true guru

सुषुम्णा (suSumnA) central nadi

समता (samatA) equinimity 

स्वरोदय (swarodaya) स्वर (swara-sound) & उदय (udaya-production)

संहिता (saMhitA) collection of verses or texts 

सेवा (seva) practice, service, homage, worship, indulgence, service

संस्कृत (saMskRta) Sanskrit lanuguage

स्व (sva) self,  स्वाध्याय (svAdhyaya) self study,  स्वभाव (svabhAva), nature, spontaneity, impulse;  स्वधर्म (svadharma) personal duty; स्वतन्त्र (svatantra) independence 

स्वामी (svAmI) master, owner, lord

संस्कार (saMskAra) mental impression

संसार (saMsAra) transmigration

सिन्दूर (sindUra) oak, सिन्दूरवृक्षः (sindUravRkSa) oak tree

सरल (sarala) pine tree, resin - Pinus species

सत्सङ्ग (satsaGga) community of truth

सिद्ध (siddha) an adept in magic; सिद्धि (siddhi) an attainment; सिद्धासन (siddhAsana) a meditation posture

संसिद्धि (saMsiddhi) perfection, success, beatitude

सूर्यनमस्कार (sUryanamaskAr) sun salutation

स्मृति (smRti) memory

स्निग्ध (snigdha) guna - unctuous, soft, demulcent, oily

(ha)

हृष्यते (hRSyate) to rejoice

हेतु (hetu) primary cause, motive, impulse

हरि (hari) an epithet of Krishna and Vishnu

हेमन्त (hemanta) winter season - releasing

हरीतकी (harItakI) yellow myrobalan - Terminalia chebula

हिङ्गु (hiGgu) Asafoetida plant and resin- Ferula assa-foetida

हिम तेन्दुआ (hima tenduA) snow leopard

ह (ha) moon

हिममानव (himamAnava) yeti, snowman

हंस (haMsa) goose, swan, flamingo

हरिद्रा (haridrA) Turmeric plant & root - Curcuma longa

हृदय (hRdaya) heart, soul, essence

हठयोग (haThayoga) hatha or forced yoga,

हठयोगप्रदीपिका (haThayogapradIpikA) title of classical yoga text, प्रदीप्ति (pradIpti) illumination, light

हरिवंश (harivaMza) addendum to the Mahabharata


Vowels[edit]

a

A

i

I

u

U

e

ai

o

au


Sonorants[edit]

R

RR

lR

lRR


Anusvāra and visarga[edit]

अं

अः

aM

aH


Consonants[edit]

Gutteral

k

kh

g

gh

G


Soft Palatal

c

ch

j

jh

J


Hard Palatal

T

Th

D

Dh

N


Dental

t

th

d

dh

n


Labial

p

ph

b

bh

m



Semi-vowel

y

r

l

v




Fricative

z

S

s

h




Harvard-Kyoto system[edit]

The Harvard-Kyoto Convention[1] is a system for transliterating Sanskrit and other languages that use the Devanāgarī script into ASCII.[citation needed] It is predominantly used informally in e-mail, and for electronic texts.[citation needed]

Prior to the Unicode era, the following Harvard-Kyoto scheme[2] was developed for putting a fairly large amount of Sanskrit textual material into machine readable format without the use of diacritics as used in IAST. Instead of diacritics it uses upper case letters. Since it employs both upper and lower case letters in its scheme, proper nouns' first letter capitalization format cannot be followed. Because it is without diacritics, it enables one to input texts with a minimum motion of the fingers on the keyboard. For the consonants, the differences to learn are: compared to IAST, all letters with an underdot are typed as the same letter capitalized; guttural and palatal nasals (ṅ, ñ) as the corresponding upper case voiced plosives (G, J); IAST ḷ, ḻ, ḻh are quite rare; the only transliteration that needs to be remembered is z for ś. The vowels table, the significant difference is for the sonorants and Anusvāra, visarga are capitalized instead of their diacritics. Finally, it is fairly readable with practice.